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Generators have types of the form Gen<'a>; this is a generator for values of type a. For manipulating values of type Gen, a computation expression called gen is provided by FsCheck, and all the functions in the Gen module are at your disposal.

Shrinkers have types of the for 'a -> seq<'a>; given a value, a shrinker produces a sequence of values that are in some way smaller than the given value. If FsCheck finds a set of values that falsify a given property, it will try to make that value smaller than the original (random) value by getting the shrinks for the value and trying each one in turn to check that the property is still false. If it is, the smaller value becomes the new counter example and the shrinking process continues with that value.

Shrinkers have no special support from FsCheck - this is not needed, since you have all that you need in seq computation expressions and the Seq module.

Finally, an Arbitrary<'a> instance packages these two types to be used in properties. FsCheck also allows you to register Arbitrary instances in a Type to Arbitrary dictionary. This dictionary is used to find an arbitrary instance for properties that have arguments, based on the argument's type.

Arbitrary instances have some helper functions in the Arb module.

Generators are built up from the function

val choose : (int * int -> Gen<int>)

which makes a random choice of a value from an interval, with a uniform distribution. For example, to make a random choice between the elements of a list, use

let chooseFromList xs = gen { let! i = Gen.choose (0, List.length xs-1) return (List.nth xs i)}

A generator may take the form

Gen.oneof <sequence of generators>

which chooses among the generators in the list with equal probability. For example,

Gen.oneof [ gen { return true }; gen { return false } ]

generates a random boolean which is true with probability one half.

We can control the distribution of results using the function

val frequency: seq<int * Gen<'a>> -> Gen<'a>

instead. Frequency chooses a generator from the list randomly, but weighs the probability of choosing each alternative by the factor given. For example,

Gen.frequency [ (2, gen { return true }); (1, gen { return false })]

generates true two thirds of the time.

Test data generators have an implicit size parameter; FsCheck begins by generating small test cases, and gradually increases the size as testing progresses. Different test data generators interpret the size parameter in different ways: some ignore it, while the list generator, for example, interprets it as an upper bound on the length of generated lists. You are free to use it as you wish to control your own test data generators.

You can obtain the value of the size parameter using

val sized : ((int -> Gen<'a>) -> Gen<'a>)

sized g calls g, passing it the current size as a parameter. For example, to generate natural numbers in the range 0 to size, use

Gen.sized <| fun s -> Gen.choose (0,s)

The purpose of size control is to ensure that test cases are large enough to reveal errors, while remaining small enough to test fast. Sometimes the default size control does not achieve this. For example, towards the end of a test run arbitrary lists may have up to 50 elements, so arbitrary lists of lists may have up to 2500, which is too large for efficient testing. In such cases it can be useful to modify the size parameter explicitly. You can do so using

val resize : (int -> Gen<'a> -> Gen<'a>)

resize n g invokes generator g with size parameter n. The size parameter should never be negative. For example, to generate a random matrix it might be appropriate to take the square root of the original size:

let matrix gen = Gen.sized <| fun s -> Gen.resize (s|>float|>sqrt|>int) gen

Generators for recursive data types are easy to express using oneof or frequency to choose between constructors, and F#'s standard computation expression syntax to form a generator for each case. There are also map functions for arity up to 6 to lift constructors and functions into the Gen type. For example, if the type of trees is defined by

type Tree = Leaf of int | Branch of Tree * Tree

then a generator for trees might be defined by

let rec unsafeTree() = Gen.oneof [ Gen.map Leaf Arb.generate<int> Gen.map2 (fun x y -> Branch (x,y)) (unsafeTree()) (unsafeTree())]

However, a recursive generator like this may fail to terminate with a StackOverflowException, or produce very large results. To avoid this, recursive generators should always use the size control mechanism. For example,

let tree = let rec tree' s = match s with | 0 -> Gen.map Leaf Arb.generate<int> | n when n>0 -> let subtree = tree' (n/2) Gen.oneof [ Gen.map Leaf Arb.generate<int> Gen.map2 (fun x y -> Branch (x,y)) subtree subtree] | _ -> invalidArg "s" "Only positive arguments are allowed" Gen.sized tree'

Note that

- We guarantee termination by forcing the result to be a leaf when the size is zero.
- We halve the size at each recursion, so that the size gives an upper bound on the number of nodes in the tree. We are free to interpret the size as we will.
- The fact that we share the subtree generator between the two branches of a Branch does not mean that we generate the same tree in each case.

If g is a generator for type t, then

two g generates a pair of t's,

three g generates a triple of t's,

four g generates a quadruple of t's,

If xs is a list, then elements xs generates an arbitrary element of xs.

listOfLength n g generates a list of exactly n t's.

listOf g generates a list of t's whose length is determined by the size parameter

nonEmptyListOf g generates a non-empty list of t's whose length is determined by the size parameter.

constant v generates the value v.

suchThat p g generates t's that satisfy the predicate p. Make sure there is a high chance that the predicate is satisfied.

suchThatOption p g generates Some t's that satisfy the predicate p, and None if none are found. (After 'trying hard')

All the generator combinators are functions on the Gen module.

FsCheck defines default test data generators and shrinkers for some often used types: unit, bool, byte, int, float, char, string, DateTime, lists, array 1D and 2D, Set, Map, objects and functions from and to any of the above. Furthermore, by using reflection, FsCheck can derive default implementations of record types, discriminated unions, tuples and enums in terms of any primitive types that are defined (either in FsCheck or by you).

You do not need to define these explicity for every property: FsCheck can provide a property with appropriate generators and shrinkers for all of the property's arguments, if it knows them or can derive them. Usually you can let type inference do the job of finding out these types based on your properties. However if you want to coerce FsCheck to use a particular generator and shrinker, you can do so by providing the appropriate type annotations.

As mentioned in the introduction, FsCheck packages a generator and shrinker for a particular type in an Arbitrary type. You can provide FsCheck with an Arbitrary instance for your own types, by defining static members of a class, each of which should return an instance of a subclass of the class Arbitrary<'a>:

type MyGenerators = static member Tree() = {new Arbitrary<Tree>() with override x.Generator = tree override x.Shrinker t = Seq.empty}

Replace the 'a by the particular type you are defiing an Arbitary instance for. Only the Generator method needs to be defined; Shrinker by default returns the empty sequence (i.e. no shrinking will occur for this type).

Now, to register all Arbitrary instances in this class:

Arb.register<MyGenerators>()

FsCheck now knows about Tree types, and can not only generate Tree values, but also e.g. lists, tuples and option values containing Trees:

let RevRevTree (xs:list<Tree>) = List.rev(List.rev xs) = xs

> Check.Quick RevRevTree;; Ok, passed 100 tests.

To generate types with a generic type argument, e.g.:

type Box<'a> = Whitebox of 'a | Blackbox of 'a

you can use the same principle. So the class MyGenerators can be writtten as follows:

let boxGen<'a> : Gen<Box<'a>> = gen { let! a = Arb.generate<'a> return! Gen.elements [ Whitebox a; Blackbox a] } type MyGenerators = static member Tree() = {new Arbitrary<Tree>() with override x.Generator = tree override x.Shrinker t = Seq.empty } static member Box() = Arb.fromGen boxGen

Notice that we use the function 'val generate<'a> : Gen<'a>' from the Arb module to get the generator for the type argument of Box. This allows you to define generators recursively. Similarly, there is a function shrink<'a>. Look at the FsCheck source for examples of default Arbitrary implementations to get a feeling of how to write such Arbitrary instances. The Arb module should help you with this task as well.

Now, the following property can be checked:

let RevRevBox (xs:list<Box<int>>) = List.rev(List.rev xs) = xs |> Prop.collect xs

> Check.Quick RevRevBox;; Ok, passed 100 tests. 5% []. 2% [Whitebox 0]. 2% [Blackbox -1]. (etc)

Note that the class needs not be tagged with attributes in any way. FsCheck determines the type of the generator by the return type of each static member.

Also note that in this case we actually didn't need to write a generator or shrinker: FsCheck can derive suitable generators using reflection for discriminated unions, record types and enums.

Arb.from<'a> returns the registered Arbitrary instance for the given type 'a

Arb.fromGen makes a new Arbitrary instance from just a given generator - the shrinker return the empty sequence

Arb.fromGenShrink make a new Arbitrary instance from a given generator and shrinker. This is equivalent to implementing Arbitrary yourself, but may be shorter.

Arb.generate<'a> returns the generator of the registered Arbitrary instance for the given type 'a

Arb.shrink return the immediate shrinks of the registered Arbitrary instance for the given value

Arb.convert given conversion functions to ('a ->'b) and from ('b ->'a), converts an Arbitrary<'a> instance to an Arbitrary<'b>

Arb.filter filters the generator and shrinker for a given Arbitrary instance to contain only those values that match with the given filter function

Arb.mapFilter maps the generator and filter the shrinkers for a given Arbitrary instance. Mapping the generator is sometimes faster, e.g. for a PositiveInt it is faster to take the absolute value than to filter the negative values.

Arb.Default is a type that contains all the default Arbitrary instances as they are shipped and registerd by FsCheck by default. This is useful when you override a default generator - typically this is because you want to filter certain values from it, and then you need to be able to refer to the default generator in your overriding generator.

Last edited Jun 4, 2010 at 6:09 PM by kurt2001, version 13